Kharkiv is the second-largest city of Ukraine. Located in the north-east of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. The city was founded in 1654 and was a major centre of Ukrainian culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv became the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic until January 1935, after which the capital was relocated to Kiev. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and the surrounding Kharkiv district.
Kharkiv is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 60 scientific institutes, 30 establishments of higher education, 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries. Its industry specialises primarily in machinery and electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city. Among them are globally important giants like the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory (leaders in world tank production in the 1930s through 1980s); Khartron (aerospace and nuclear electronics); and the Turboatom turbines producer.